Microsoft has a large number of servers and APIs that developers can choose to use. The Windows platform is over 20 years old now, so obviously some APIs have been deprecated. Determining which APIs to build your applications upon can have a big effect on your software development process, so choosing ones that are likely to be around a while is important.
This is a work in progress. To be listed here, a technology must be a Microsoft technology designed for developers – not something like Office that supports scripting, but rather something a developer might choose to build their product around.
Any more? (If so, post them as comments).